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In vitro Anti-Malarial Drug Susceptibility of Temperate Plasmodium vivax from Central China

Abstract. In the face of recent increase of Plasmodium vivax malaria in central China, we conducted a study to evalu-
ate in vitro susceptibility of temperate-zone P. vivax parasites to antimalarial drugs. During 2005–2006, in vitro drug sus-
ceptibility was measured for 42 clinical P. vivax isolates by using a schizont maturation inhibition technique. Geometric
means of 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC
50 s) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 10.87 (4.50–26.26) ng/mL for
chloroquine, 4.21 (1.88–9.42–8) ng/mL for mefloquine, 11.82 (6.20–22.56) ng/mL for quinine, 0.13 (0.09–0.20) ng/mL
for artesunate, 18.32 (8.08–41.50) ng/mL for pyrimethamine, and 17.73 (10.29–30.57) ng/mL for piperaquine. The IC
for chloroquine was lower than those obtained from isolates from Thailand and South Korea, suggesting that chloroquine
remained effective against P. vivax malaria in central China. The results further indicated that temperate-zone P. vivax
isolates from China were more susceptible to chloroquine, quinine, and mefloquine than isolates from Thailand.